30 November -1

In order to disguise the identities of recipients of illicit transfers to politicians and officials, Odebrecht used pseudonyms in the transactions of the now infamous ‘Caja 2’. Who the pseudonyms referred to has been a matter of guesswork up to now, but senior Odebrecht officials have in recent weeks suggested some of their true identities, to the obvious embarrassment (if not worse) of those to whom they relate.
Altogether, Odebrecht officials admit to having paid bribes on 13 construction projects in Peru, as well as financing election campaigns of various presidential candidates in 2011.

There were no less than 72 such coded references. The identities of all those on the list has yet to be finally confirmed. Jorge Barata, Odebrecht’s one-time man in Peru, has drawn attention to some of those on the list but has referred to his subordinate, Eleuberto Martorelli (who worked in the ‘Caja 2’ itself) to confirm these. Because of problems of cashflow within Odebrecht it has so far been impossible to confirm the true identities of all 72 code names.

However, Barata has said that he thinks the code name ‘campanha nacional’ referred to payments to Keiko Fujimori, Ollanta Humala and Alan García. That of ‘Sipán’ related to Javier Velásquez Quesquén and Yehudi Simón, both from Lambayeque and both leading figures in the García’s APRA government (2006-11). ‘Oriente’, he suggests, is the pseudonym for Alejandro Toledo, presumably for his links with the Israeli citizen Josef Maiman.

Similarly, ‘campanha regional’, he suggests, was the code name used for campaign payments to former Lima mayors Luis Castañeda Lossio and Susana Villarán. It also was used, he thinks, for Lourdes Flores for her campaign expenses. ‘Campanha legislativa’ was similarly used for payments to Hildebrando Tapia and Juan Carlos Eguren, both leading figures in Flores’ Partido Popular Cristiano (PPC).

‘Almohadinha’ referred to Horacio Cánepa (also from the PPC) and ‘curriculum vitae’ to former prime minister and governor of San Martín César Villanueva (CV being his initials). ‘Pastor alemán’ appears to have been the code name for Aurelio Pastor, a minister under the García government.

According to Martorelli, Kuczynski’s one-time lawyer and senior official in the transport and communications ministry Celso Gamarra was ‘Italiano’. Martorelli has suggested that the whole team of those working on a construction project in the Alto Huallaga were on Odebrecht’s pay list. He also underlined the key role played by Cánepa in coordinating support from the PPC for Odebrecht’s urban transport contract in Lima.

All articles

  • PSG Aims

    The Peru Support Group exists to promote social inclusion, sustainable development and the observance of human rights in Peru. To that end the PSG highlights shortcomings in observance of established norms, whether international or local in nature, in its research, advocacy and publications. In so doing, it underscores the relationships that exist within the political system, how institutions work, and the effectiveness of policies that aim to reduce poverty and inequality within the context of sustainable development.

  • Historical Overview

    Over the past century Peru has suffered a series of autocratic governments and a civil war in which nearly 70,000 people died. Many of the country's ongoing political and social problems are a legacy of its somewhat turbulent past. 

  • Human Rights

    Human rights violations were widespread during the twenty years after the initiation of armed conflict in 1980. Efforts to convict perpetrators since the war's end have made only limited progress. Today, concerns remain over the treatment of those engaged in social protest, particularly against strategically important investment projects.

  • Why join the PSG?

    • Keep up to date with latest news and developments in Peru
    • Learn about key issues of poverty, development and human rights in Peru
    • Support the work of the Peru Support Group

    Become a member